Electric System Input Data

All the input files must be located in a folder with the name of the case study.

Acronyms

Acronym

Description

AC

Alternating Current

aFRR

Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve

AWE

Alkaline Water Electrolyzer (consumes electricity to produce hydrogen)

BESS

Battery Energy Storage System

CC

Capacity Credit

CCGT

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

CHP

Combined Heat and Power. Cogeneration (produces electricity and heat simultaneously)

DC

Direct Current

DCPF

DC Power Flow

DR

Demand Response

DSM

Demand-Side Management

DSR

Demand-Side Response

EB

Electric Boiler

EHU

Electrical Heating Unit (Power to Heat: consumes electricity to produce heat, e.g., heat pump, electric boiler)

EFOR

Equivalent Forced Outage Rate

ELZ

Electrolyzer (Power to Hydrogen: consumes electricity to produce hydrogen)

ENS

Energy Not Served

ENTSO-E

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity

ESS

Energy Storage System

EV

Electric Vehicle

FHU

Fuel Heating Unit (Fuel to Heat: consumes any fuel other than hydrogen to produce heat, e.g., biomass/natural gas/oil boiler)

GEP

Generation Expansion Planning

mFRR

Manual Frequency Restoration Reserve

H2

Hydrogen

HHU

Hydrogen Heating unit (Hydrogen to Heat: consumes hydrogen to produce heat)

HNS

Hydrogen Not Served

HP

Heat Pump (power to heat: consumes electricity to produce heat)

HTNS

Heat Not Served

IRP

Integrated Resource Planning

NTC

Net Transfer Capacity

OCGT

Open Cycle Gas Turbine

PHS

Pumped-Hydro Storage

PNS

Power Not Served

PV

Photovoltaics

RES

Renewable Energy Source

SEP

Storage Expansion Planning

TEP

Transmission Expansion Planning

TTC

Total Transfer Capacity

VOLL

Value of Lost Load

VRE

Variable Renewable Energy

VRES

Variable Renewable Energy Source (units with null linear variable cost and no storage capacity. Do not contribute to the the operating reserves)

Dictionaries. Sets

The dictionaries include all the possible elements of the corresponding sets included in the optimization problem. You can’t use non-English characters (e.g., ó, º)

File

Description

oT_Dict_Period.csv

Period (e.g., 2030, 2035). It must be a positive integer

oT_Dict_Scenario.csv

Scenario. Short-term uncertainties (scenarios) (e.g., s001 to s100, CY2025 to CY2030)

oT_Dict_Stage.csv

Stage

oT_Dict_LoadLevel.csv

Load level (e.g., 01-01 00:00:00+01:00 to 12-30 23:00:00+01:00). If is a datetime format. Load levels with duration 0 are ignored. The period (year) must represented by 8736 load levels.

oT_Dict_Generation.csv

Generation units (thermal -nuclear, CCGT, OCGT, coal-, ESS -storage hydro modeled in energy or in water, pumped-hydro storage PHS, battery BESS, electric vehicle EV, demand response DR, alkaline water electrolyzer AWE, solar thermal- and VRES -wind onshore and offshore, solar PV, run-of-the-river hydro-)

oT_Dict_Technology.csv

Generation technologies. The technology order is used in the temporal result plot.

oT_Dict_Storage.csv

ESS storage type (daily < 12 h, weekly < 40 h, monthly > 60 h).

oT_Dict_Node.csv

Nodes. A node belongs to a zone.

oT_Dict_Zone.csv

Zones. A zone belongs to an area.

oT_Dict_Area.csv

Areas. An area belongs to a region. Long-term adequacy, inertia and operating reserves are associated to areas.

oT_Dict_Region.csv

Regions

oT_Dict_Circuit.csv

Circuits

oT_Dict_Line.csv

Line type (AC, DC)

Geographical location of nodes, zones, areas, regions.

File

Dictionary

Description

oT_Dict_NodeToZone.csv

NodeToZone

Location of nodes at zones

oT_Dict_ZoneToArea.csv

ZoneToArea

Location of zones at areas

oT_Dict_AreaToRegion.csv

AreaToRegion

Location of areas at regions

See the hydropower system section at the end of this page to know how to define the basin topology (connection among reservoir and hydropower plants). Some additional dictionaries and data files are needed.

Input files

This is the list of the input data files and their brief description.

File

Description

oT_Data_Option.csv

Options of use of the openTEPES model

oT_Data_Parameter.csv

General system parameters

oT_Data_Period.csv

Weight of each period

oT_Data_Scenario.csv

Short-term uncertainties

oT_Data_Stage.csv

Weight of each stage

oT_Data_ReserveMargin.csv

Minimum adequacy reserve margin for each area and period

oT_Data_Emission.csv

Maximum CO2 emission of the electric system

oT_Data_RESEnergy.csv

Minimum RES energy

oT_Data_Duration.csv

Duration of the load levels

oT_Data_Demand.csv

Electricity demand

oT_Data_Inertia.csv

System inertia by area

oT_Data_OperatingReserveUp.csv

Upward operating reserves (include aFRR and mFRR for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E)

oT_Data_OperatingReserveDown.csv

Downward operating reserves (include aFRR and mFRR for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E)

oT_Data_Generation.csv

Generation (electricity and heat) data

oT_Data_VariableMaxGeneration.csv

Variable maximum power generation by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinGeneration.csv

Variable minimum power generation by load level

oT_Data_VariableMaxConsumption.csv

Variable maximum power consumption by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinConsumption.csv

Variable minimum power consumption by load level

oT_Data_VariableFuelCost.csv

Variable fuel cost by load level

oT_Data_EnergyInflows.csv

Energy inflows to an ESS by load level

oT_Data_EnergyOutflows.csv

Energy outflows from an ESS for Power-to-X (H2 production, EV mobility, heat production, or water irrigation) by load level

oT_Data_VariableMaxStorage.csv

Maximum storage of the ESS by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinStorage.csv

Minimum storage of the ESS by load level

oT_Data_VariableMaxEnergy.csv

Maximum energy of the unit by load level (the energy will be accumulated and enforced for the interval defined by EnergyType)

oT_Data_VariableMinEnergy.csv

Minimum energy of the unit by load level (the energy will be accumulated and enforced for the interval defined by EnergyType)

oT_Data_Network.csv

Electricity network data

oT_Data_NodeLocation.csv

Node location in latitude and longitude

In any input file only the columns indicated in this document will be read. For example, you can add a column for comments or additional information as needed, but it will not read by the model.

Options

A description of the options included in the file oT_Data_Option.csv follows:

File

Description

IndBinGenInvest

Indicator of binary generation expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinGenRetirement

Indicator of binary generation retirement decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore retirements}

IndBinRsrInvest

Indicator of binary reservoir expansion decisions (only used for reservoirs modeled with water units)

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinNetInvest

Indicator of binary electricity network expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinNetH2Invest

Indicator of binary hydrogen network expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinNetHeatInvest

Indicator of binary heat network expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinGenOperat

Indicator of binary generation operation decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary}

IndBinGenRamps

Indicator of activating or not the up/down ramp constraints

{0 no ramps, 1 ramp constraints}

IndBinGenMinTime

Indicator of activating or not the min up/down time constraints

{0 no min time constraints, 1 min time constraints}

IndBinSingleNode

Indicator of single node case study

{0 network, 1 single node}

IndBinLineCommit

Indicator of binary transmission switching decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary}

IndBinNetLosses

Indicator of network losses

{0 lossless, 1 ohmic losses}

If the investment decisions are ignored (IndBinGenInvest, IndBinGenRetirement, and IndBinNetInvest take value 2) or there are no investment decisions, all the scenarios with a probability > 0 are solved sequentially (assuming a probability 1) and the periods are considered with a weight 1.

Parameters

A description of the system parameters included in the file oT_Data_Parameter.csv follows:

File

Description

ENSCost

Cost of energy not served (ENS). Cost of load curtailment. Value of Lost Load (VoLL)

€/MWh

HNSCost

Cost of hydrogen not served (HNS)

€/kgH2

HTNSCost

Cost of heat not served (HTNS)

€/MWh

PNSCost

Cost of power not served (PNS) associated with the deficit in operating reserve by load level

€/MW

CO2Cost

Cost of CO2 emissions

€/tCO2

UpReserveActivation

Upward reserve activation (proportion of upward operating reserve deployed to produce energy)

p.u.

DwReserveActivation

Downward reserve activation (proportion of downward operating reserve deployed to produce energy)

p.u.

MinRatioDwUp

Minimum ratio downward to upward operating reserves

p.u.

MaxRatioDwUp

Maximum ratio downward to upward operating reserves

p.u.

Sbase

Base power used in the DCPF

MW

ReferenceNode

Reference node used in the DCPF

TimeStep

Duration of the time step for the load levels (hourly, bi-hourly, trihourly, etc.)

h

EconomicBaseYear

Base year for economic parameters affected by the discount rate

year

AnnualDiscountRate

Annual discount rate

p.u.

A time step greater than one hour it is a convenient way to reduce the load levels of the time scope. The moving average of the demand, upward/downward operating reserves, variable generation/consumption/storage and ESS energy inflows/outflows over the time step load levels is assigned to active load levels (e.g., the mean value of the three hours is associated to the third hour in a trihourly time step).

Period

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Period.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Weight

Weight of each period

This weight allows the definition of equivalent (representative) years (e.g., year 2030 with a weight of 5 would represent years 2030-2034). Periods are not mathematically connected between them with operation constraints, i.e., no constraints link the operation at different periods. However, they are linked by the investment decisions, i.e., investments made in a year remain installed for the rest of the years.

Scenario

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Scenario.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Probability

Probability of each scenario in each period

p.u.

For example, the scenarios can be used for obtaining the IRP (GEP+SEP+TEP) considering hydro energy/water inflows uncertainty represented by means of three scenarios (wet, dry and average), or two VRES scenarios (windy/cloudy and calm/sunny). The sum of the probabilities of all the scenarios of a period must be 1.

Stage

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Stage.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Scenario

Weight

Weight of each stage

This weight allows the definition of equivalent (representative) periods (e.g., one representative week with a weight of 52 or four representative weeks each one with a weight of 13). Stages are not mathematically connected between them, i.e., no constraints link the operation at different stages. Consequently, the storage type can’t exceed the duration of the stage (i.e., if the stage lasts for 168 hours the storage type can only be hourly or daily).

Adequacy reserve margin

The adequacy reserve margin is the ratio between the available capacity and the maximum demand. According to ENTSO-e, adequacy is defined as the ability of the electric system to supply the aggregate electrical demand and energy requirements of the customers at all times, taking into account scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outages of system elements. For determining the available capacity, the model uses the availability of the generating units times their maximum power. The availability can be computed as the ratio between the firm capacity and the installed capacity. Firm capacity can be determined as the Firm Capacity Equivalent (FCE) or the Effective Load-Carrying Capability (ELCC). A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_ReserveMargin.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Area

ReserveMargin

Minimum adequacy reserve margin for each period and area

p.u.

This parameter is only used for system generation expansion, not for the system operation. If no value is introduced for an area, the reserve margin is considered 0.

Maximum CO2 emission

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Emission.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Area

CO2Emission

Maximum CO2 emission of the electric system for each period and area

MtCO2

If no value is introduced for an area, the CO2 emission limit is considered infinite.

Minimum RES energy

It is like a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_RESEnergy.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Area

RESEnergy

Minimum RES energy for each period and area

GWh

If no value is introduced for an area, the RES energy limit is considered 0.

Duration

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Duration.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Duration Stage

Duration of the load level. Load levels with duration 0 are ignored Assignment of the load level to a stage

h

It is a simple way to use isolated snapshots or representative days or just the first three months instead of all the hours of a year to simplify the optimization problem. All the load levels must have the same duration. The duration is not intended to change for the several load levels of an stage. Usually, duration is put as 1 hour or 0 if you want not to use the load levels after some hour of the year. The parameter time step must be used to collapse consecutive load levels into a single one for the optimization problem.

The stage duration as sum of the duration of all the load levels must be larger or equal than the shortest duration of any storage type or any outflows type or any energy type (all given in the generation data) and multiple of it. Consecutive stages are not connected between them, i.e., no constraints link the operation at different stages. Consequently, the storage type can’t exceed the duration of the stage (i.e., if the stage lasts for 168 hours the storage type can only be hourly or daily). Consequently, the objective function with several stages must be a bit higher than in the case of a single stage.

The initial storage of the ESSs is also fixed at the beginning and end of each stage. For example, the initial storage level is set for the hour 8736 in case of a single stage or for the hours 4368 and 4369 (end of the first stage and beginning of the second stage) in case of two stages, each with 4368 hours.

Electricity demand

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Demand.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Node

Power demand of the node for each load level

MW

The electricity demand can be negative for the (transmission) nodes where there is (renewable) generation in lower voltage levels. This negative demand is equivalent to generate that power amount in this node. Internally, all the values below if positive demand (or above if negative demand) 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

System inertia

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_Inertia.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Area

System inertia of the area for each load level

s

Given that the system inertia depends on the area, it can be sensible to assign an area as a country, for example. The system inertia can be used for imposing a minimum synchronous power and, consequently, force the commitment of at least some rotating units. Each generating unit can contribute to the system inertia. The system inertia is the sum of the inertia of all the committed units in the area.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system electricity demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Upward and downward operating reserves

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_OperatingReserveUp.csv and oT_Data_OperatingReserveDown.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Area

Upward/downward operating reserves of the area for each load level

MW

Given that the operating reserves depend on the area, it can be sensible to assign an area as a country, for example. These operating reserves must include Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserves (aFRR) and Manual Frequency Restoration Reserves (mFRR) for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Generation

A description of the data included for each (electricity and heat) generating unit in the file oT_Data_Generation.csv follows:

Header

Description

Node

Name of the node where generator is located. If left empty, the generator is ignored

Technology

Technology of the generator (nuclear, coal, CCGT, OCGT, ESS, solar, wind, biomass, etc.)

MutuallyExclusive

Mutually exclusive generator. Only exclusion in one direction is needed

BinaryCommitment

Binary unit commitment decision

Yes/No

NoOperatingReserve

No contribution to operating reserve. Yes if the unit doesn’t contribute to the operating reserve

Yes/No

StorageType

Storage type based on storage capacity (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)

Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

OutflowsType

Outflows type based on the electricity demand extracted from the storage (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)

Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

EnergyType

Energy type based on the max/min energy to be produced by the unit (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)

Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

MustRun

Must-run unit

Yes/No

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

MaximumPower

Maximum power output of electricity (generation/discharge for ESS units)

MW

MinimumPower

Minimum power output of electricity (i.e., minimum stable load in the case of a thermal power plant)

MW

MaximumPowerHeat

Maximum heat output (heat produced by a CHP, at its maximum electric power, or by a fuel heater, which do not produce electric power)

MW

MinimumPowerHeat

Minimum heat output (heat produced by a CHP, at its minimum electric power, or by a fuel heater, which do not produce electric power)

MW

MaximumReactivePower

Maximum reactive power output (discharge for ESS units) (not used in this version)

MW

MinimumReactivePower

Minimum reactive power output (not used in this version)

MW

MaximumCharge

Maximum consumption/charge when the ESS unit is storing energy

MW

MinimumCharge

Minimum consumption/charge when the ESS unit is storing energy

MW

InitialStorage

Initial energy stored at the first instant of the time scope

GWh

MaximumStorage

Maximum energy that can be stored by the ESS unit

GWh

MinimumStorage

Minimum energy that can be stored by the ESS unit

GWh

Efficiency

Round-trip efficiency of the pump/turbine cycle of a pumped-hydro storage power plant or charge/discharge of a battery

p.u.

ProductionFunctionHydro

Production function from water inflows (denominator) to electricity (numerator) (only used for hydropower plants modeled with water units and basin topology)

kWh/m3

ProductionFunctionH2

Production function from electricity (numerator) to hydrogen (denominator) (only used for electrolyzers)

kWh/kgH2

ProductionFunctionHeat

Production function from electricity (numerator) to heat (denominator) (only used for heat pumps or electric boilers)

kWh/kWh

ProductionFunctionH2ToHeat

Production function from hydrogen (numerator) to heat (denominator) (only used for hydrogen heater, which produce heat burning hydrogen)

kgH2/kWh

Availability

Unit availability for area adequacy reserve margin (also called de-rating factor or capacity credit or Firm Capacity Equivalent (FCE) or the Effective Load-Carrying Capability (ELCC))

p.u.

Inertia

Unit inertia constant

s

EFOR

Equivalent Forced Outage Rate

p.u.

RampUp

Ramp up rate for generating units or maximum discharge rate for ESS discharge (generation)

MW/h

RampDown

Ramp down rate for generating units or maximum charge rate for ESS charge (consumption)

MW/h

UpTime

Minimum uptime

h

DownTime

Minimum downtime

h

StableTime

Minimum stable time (intended for nuclear units to be at its minimum load during this time)

h

ShiftTime

Maximum shift time

h

FuelCost

Fuel cost

€/Gcal

LinearTerm

Linear term (slope) of the heat rate straight line

Gcal/MWh

ConstantTerm

Constant term (intercept) of the heat rate straight line

Gcal/h

OMVariableCost

Variable O&M cost

€/MWh

OperReserveCost

Operating reserve cost

€/MW

StartUpCost

Startup cost

M€

ShutDownCost

Shutdown cost

M€

CO2EmissionRate

CO2 emission rate. It can be negative for units absorbing CO2 emissions as biomass

tCO2/MWh

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedRetirementCost

Overnight retirement (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

StorageInvestment

Storage capacity and energy inflows linked to the investment decision

Yes/No

BinaryInvestment

Binary unit investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

BinaryRetirement

Binary unit retirement decision

Yes/No

RetirementLo

Lower bound of retirement decision

p.u.

RetirementUp

Upper bound of retirement decision

p.u.

The main characteristics that define each type of generator are the following:

Generator type

Description

Generator

It has MaximumPower or MaximumCharge or MaximumPowerHeat > 0

Thermal

Fuel-based variable cost (fuel cost x linear term + CO2 emission cost) > 0

RES

Fuel-based variable cost (fuel cost x linear term + CO2 emission cost) = 0 and MaximumStorage = 0. It may have OMVariableCost > 0

ESS

It has MaximumCharge or MaximumStorage > 0 or ProductionFunctionH2 or ProductionFunctionHeat > 0 and ProductionFunctionHydro = 0

Hydro power plant (energy)

ESS with ProductionFunctionHydro = 0

Pumped-hydro storage (energy)

ESS with MaximumCharge > 0

Battery (BESS), demand response (DR)

ESS with MaximumCharge > 0 (usually, StorageType daily)

Electric vehicle (EV)

ESS with electric energy outflows

Electrolyzer (ELZ)

ESS with electric energy outflows and ProductionFunctionH2 > 0 and ProductionFunctionHeat = 0 and ProductionFunctionHydro = 0

Heat pump or electric boiler

ESS with ProductionFunctionHeat > 0 and ProductionFunctionH2 = 0 and ProductionFunctionHydro = 0

CHP or fuel heating unit

It has RatedMaxPowerElec > 0 and RatedMaxPowerHeat > 0 and ProductionFunctionHeat = 0

Fuel heating unit, fuel boiler

It has RatedMaxPowerElec = 0 and RatedMaxPowerHeat > 0 and ProductionFunctionHeat = 0

Hydrogen heating unit

Fuel heating unit with ProductionFunctionH2ToHeat > 0

Hydro power plant (water)

It has ProductionFunctionHydro > 0

The model allways considers a month of 672 hours, i.e., 4 weeks, not calendar months. The model considers a year of 8736 hours, i.e., 52 weeks, not calendar years.

Daily storage type means that the ESS inventory is assessed every time step. For daily storage type it is assessed at the end of every hour, for weekly storage type it is assessed at the end of every day, monthly storage type is assessed at the end of every week, and yearly storage type is assessed at the end of every month. Outflows type represents the interval when the energy extracted from the storage must be satisfied (for daily outflows type at the end of every day, i.e., the sum of the energy consumed must be equal to the sum of outflows for every day). Energy type represents the interval when the minimum or maximum energy to be produced by a unit must be satisfied (for daily energy type at the end of every day, i.e., the sum of the energy generated by the unit must be lower/greater to the sum of max/min energy for every day). The storage cycle is the minimum between the inventory assessment period (defined by the storage type), the outflows period (defined by the outflows type), and the energy period (defined by the energy type) (only if outflows or energy power values have been introduced). It can be one time step, one day, one week, and one month, but it can’t exceed the stage duration. For example, if the stage lasts for 168 hours the storage cycle can only be hourly or daily.

The initial storage of the ESSs is also fixed at the beginning and end of each stage, only if the initial inventory lies between the storage limits. For example, the initial storage level is set for the hour 8736 in case of a single stage or for the hours 4368 and 4369 (end of the first stage and beginning of the second stage) in case of two stages, each with 4368 hours.

A generator with operation cost (sum of the fuel and emission cost, excluding O&M cost) > 0 is considered a non-renewable unit. If the unit has no operation cost and its maximum storage = 0, it is considered a renewable unit. If its maximum storage is > 0, with or without operation cost, is considered an ESS.

A very small variable O&M cost (not below 0.01 €/MWh, otherwise it will converted to 0 by the model) for the ESS can be used to avoid pumping with avoided curtailment (at no cost) and afterwards being discharged as spillage.

Must-run non-renewable units are always committed, i.e., their commitment decision is equal to 1. All must-run units are forced to produce at least their minimum output.

EFOR is used to reduce the maximum and minimum power of the unit. For hydropower plants it can be used to reduce their maximum power by the water head effect. It does not reduce the maximum charge.

Those generators or ESS with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

Maximum, minimum, and initial storage values are considered proportional to the invested capacity for the candidate ESS units if StorageInvestment is activated.

If lower and upper bounds of investment/retirement decisions are very close (with a difference < 1e-3) to 0 or 1 are converted into 0 and 1.

Variable maximum and minimum generation

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxGeneration.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinGeneration.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) power generation of the unit by load level

MW

This information can be used for considering scheduled outages or weather-dependent operating capacity.

To force a generator to produce 0 a lower value (e.g., 0.1 MW) strictly > 0, but not 0 (in which case the value will be ignored), must be introduced. This is needed to limit the solar production at night, for example. It can be used also for upper-bounding and/or lower-bounding the output of any generator (e.g., run-of-the-river hydro, wind).

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Variable maximum and minimum consumption

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxConsumption.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinConsumption.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) power consumption of the unit by load level

MW

To force a ESS to consume 0 a lower value (e.g., 0.1 MW) strictly > 0, but not 0 (in which case the value will be ignored), must be introduced. It can be used also for upper-bounding and/or lower-bounding the consumption of any ESS (e.g., pumped-hydro storage, battery).

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Variable fuel cost

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_VariableFuelCost.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Variable fuel cost

€/Gcal

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

Internally, all the values below 1e-4 will be converted into 0 by the model.

Fuel cost affects the linear and constant terms of the heat rate, expressed in Gcal/MWh and Gcal/h respectively.

Variable emission cost

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_VariableEmissionCost.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Variable emission cost

€/tCO2

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

Internally, all the values below 1e-4 will be converted into 0 by the model.

Energy inflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_EnergyInflows.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Energy inflows by load level

MWh/h

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

If you have daily energy inflows data just input the daily amount at the first hour of every day if the ESS have daily or weekly storage capacity.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Energy inflows are considered proportional to the invested capacity for the candidate ESS units if StorageInvestment is activated.

Energy outflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_EnergyOutflows.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Energy outflows by load level

MWh/h

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

These energy outflows can be used to represent the electric energy extracted from an ESS to produce H2 from electrolyzers, to move EVs, to produce heat, or as hydro outflows for irrigation. The use of these outflows is incompatible with the charge of the ESS within the same time step (as the discharge of a battery is incompatible with the charge in the same hour).

If you have daily/weekly/monthly/yearly outflows data, you can just input the daily/weekly/monthly/yearly amount at the first hour of every day/week/month/year.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Variable maximum and minimum storage

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxStorage.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinStorage.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) storage of the ESS by load level

GWh

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

For example, these data can be used for defining the operating guide (rule) curves for the ESS.

Variable maximum and minimum energy

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxEnergy.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinEnergy.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) energy of the unit by load level

MW

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

For example, these data can be used for defining the minimum and/or maximum energy to be produced on a daily/weekly/monthly/yearly basis (depending on the EnergyType).

Electricity transmission network

A description of the circuit (initial node, final node, circuit) data included in the file oT_Data_Network.csv follows:

Header

Description

LineType

Line type {AC, DC, Transformer, Converter}

Switching

The transmission line is able to switch on/off

Yes/No

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

Voltage

Line voltage (e.g., 400, 220 kV, 220/400 kV if transformer). Used only for plotting purposes

kV

Length

Line length (only used for reporting purposes). If not defined, computed as 1.1 times the geographical distance

km

LossFactor

Transmission losses equal to the line flow times this factor

p.u.

Resistance

Resistance (not used in this version)

p.u.

Reactance

Reactance. Lines must have a reactance different from 0 to be considered

p.u.

Susceptance

Susceptance (not used in this version)

p.u.

AngMax

Maximum angle difference (not used in this version)

º

AngMin

Minimum angle difference (not used in this version)

º

Tap

Tap changer (not used in this version)

p.u.

Converter

Converter station (not used in this version)

Yes/No

TTC

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in forward direction. Static line rating

MW

TTCBck

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in backward direction. Static line rating

MW

SecurityFactor

Security factor to consider approximately N-1 contingencies. NTC = TTC x SecurityFactor

p.u.

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

BinaryInvestment

Binary line/circuit investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

SwOnTime

Minimum switch-on time

h

SwOffTime

Minimum switch-off time

h

Initial and final node are the nodes where the transmission line starts and ends, respectively. They must be different.

Depending on the voltage lines are plotted with different colors (orange < 200 kV, 200 < green < 350 kV, 350 < red < 500 kV, 500 < orange < 700 kV, blue > 700 kV).

If there is no data for TTCBck, i.e., TTCBck is left empty or is equal to 0, it is substituted by the TTC in the code. Internally, all the TTC and TTCBck values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Reactance can take a negative value as a result of the approximation of three-winding transformers. No Kirchhoff’s second law disjunctive constraint is formulated for a circuit with negative reactance.

Those lines with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

If lower and upper bounds of investment decisions are very close (with a difference < 1e-3) to 0 or 1 are converted into 0 and 1.

Node location

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_NodeLocation.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Node

Latitude

Node latitude

º

Node

Longitude

Node longitude

º

Hydropower System Input Data

These input files are specifically introduced for allowing a representation of the hydropower system based on volume and water inflow data considering the water stream topology (hydro cascade basins). If they are not available, the model runs with an energy-based representation of the hydropower system.

Dictionaries. Sets

The dictionaries include all the possible elements of the corresponding sets included in the optimization problem. You can’t use non-English characters (e.g., ó, º)

File

Description

oT_Dict_Reservoir.csv

Reservoirs

The information contained in these input files determines the topology of the hydro basins and how water flows along the different hydropower and pumped-hydro power plants and reservoirs. These relations follow the water downstream direction.

File

Dictionary

Description

oT_Dict_ReservoirToHydro.csv

ReservoirToHydro

Reservoir upstream of hydropower plant (i.e., hydro takes the water from the reservoir)

oT_Dict_HydroToReservoir.csv

HydroToReservoir

Hydropower plant upstream of reservoir (i.e., hydro releases the water to the reservoir)

oT_Dict_ReservoirToPumpedHydro.csv

ReservoirToPumpedHydro

Reservoir upstream of pumped-hydro power plant (i.e., pumped-hydro pumps from the reservoir)

oT_Dict_PumpedHydroToReservoir.csv

PumpedHydroToReservoir

Pumped-hydro power plant upstream of reservoir (i.e., pumped-hydro pumps to the reservoir)

oT_Dict_ReservoirToReservoir.csv

ReservoirToReservoir

Reservoir upstream of reservoir (i.e., reservoir one spills the water to reservoir two)

Natural hydro inflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_HydroInflows.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Reservoir

Natural water inflows by load level

m3/s

All the reservoirs must be defined as columns of these files.

If you have daily natural hydro inflows data just input the daily amount at the first hour of every day if the reservoir have daily or weekly storage capacity.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Natural hydro outflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_HydroOutflows.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Reservoir

Water outflows by load level (e.g., for irrigation

m3/s

All the reservoirs must be defined as columns of these files.

These water outflows can be used to represent the hydro outflows for irrigation.

If you have daily/weekly/monthly/yearly water outflows data, you can just input the daily/weekly/monthly/yearly amount at the first hour of every day/week/month/year.

Internally, all the values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Reservoir

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Reservoir.csv follows:

Header

Description

StorageType

Reservoir storage type based on reservoir storage capacity (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)

Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

OutflowsType

Water outflows type based on the water extracted from the reservoir (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)

Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

InitialStorage

Initial volume stored at the first instant of the time scope

hm3

MaximumStorage

Maximum volume that can be stored by the hydro reservoir

hm3

MinimumStorage

Minimum volume that can be stored by the hydro reservoir

hm3

BinaryInvestment

Binary reservoir investment decision

Yes/No

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

The model allways considers a month of 672 hours, i.e., 4 weeks, not calendar months. The model considers a year of 8736 hours, i.e., 52 weeks, not calendar years.

Daily storage type means that the ESS inventory is assessed every time step, for weekly storage type it is assessed at the end of every day, monthly storage type is assessed at the end of every week, and yearly storage type is assessed at the end of every month. Outflows type represents the interval when the water extracted from the reservoir must be satisfied (for daily outflows type at the end of every day, i.e., the sum of the water consumed must be equal to the sum of water outflows for every day). The storage cycle is the minimum between the inventory assessment period (defined by the storage type), the outflows period (defined by the outflows type), and the energy period (defined by the energy type) (only if outflows or energy power values have been introduced). It can be one time step, one day, one week, and one month, but it can’t exceed the stage duration. For example, if the stage lasts for 168 hours the storage cycle can only be hourly or daily.

The initial reservoir volume is also fixed at the beginning and end of each stage, only if the initial volume lies between the reservoir storage limits. For example, the initial volume is set for the hour 8736 in case of a single stage or for the hours 4368 and 4369 (end of the first stage and beginning of the second stage) in case of two stages, each with 4368 hours.

Variable maximum and minimum reservoir volume

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxVolume.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinVolume.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Reservoir

Maximum (minimum) reservoir volume by load level

hm3

All the reservoirs must be defined as columns of these files.

For example, these data can be used for defining the operating guide (rule) curves for the hydro reservoirs.

Hydrogen System Input Data

These input files are specifically introduced for allowing a representation of the hydrogen energy vector to supply hydrogen demand produced with electricity or by any other means through the hydrogen network. If the hydrogen is only produced from electricity and there is not hydrogen transfer among nodes the hydrogen demand can be represented by the energy outflows associated to the unit (i.e., electrolyzer).

File

Description

oT_Data_DemandHydrogen.csv

Hydrogen demand

oT_Data_NetworkHydrogen.csv

Hydrogen pipeline network data

Hydrogen demand

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_DemandHydrogen.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Node

Hydrogen demand of the node for each load level

tH2/h

Internally, all the values below if positive demand (or above if negative demand) 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Hydrogen transmission pipeline network

A description of the circuit (initial node, final node, circuit) data included in the file oT_Data_NetworkHydrogen.csv follows:

Header

Description

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

Length

Pipeline length (only used for reporting purposes). If not defined, computed as 1.1 times the geographical distance

km

TTC

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in forward direction. Static pipeline rating

tH2

TTCBck

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in backward direction. Static pipeline rating

tH2

SecurityFactor

Security factor to consider approximately N-1 contingencies. NTC = TTC x SecurityFactor

p.u.

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

BinaryInvestment

Binary pipeline investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

Initial and final node are the nodes where the transmission line starts and ends, respectively. They must be different.

If there is no data for TTCBck, i.e., TTCBck is left empty or is equal to 0, it is substituted by the TTC in the code. Internally, all the TTC and TTCBck values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Those pipelines with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

If lower and upper bounds of investment decisions are very close (with a difference < 1e-3) to 0 or 1 are converted into 0 and 1.

Heat System Input Data

These input files are specifically introduced for allowing a representation of the heat energy vector to supply heat demand produced with electricity or with any fuel through the heat network. If the heat is only produced from electricity and there is not heat transfer among nodes the heat demand can be represented by the energy outflows associated to the unit (i.e., heat pump or electric boiler).

File

Description

oT_Data_DemandHeat.csv

Heat demand

oT_Data_NetworkHeat.csv

Heat pipeline network data

Heat demand

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_DemandHeat.csv follows:

Identifiers

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Node

Heat demand of the node for each load level

MW

Internally, all the values below if positive demand (or above if negative demand) 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Heat transmission pipeline network

A description of the circuit (initial node, final node, circuit) data included in the file oT_Data_NetworkHeat.csv follows:

Header

Description

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

Length

Pipeline length (only used for reporting purposes). If not defined, computed as 1.1 times the geographical distance

km

TTC

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in forward direction. Static pipeline rating

MW

TTCBck

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in backward direction. Static pipeline rating

MW

SecurityFactor

Security factor to consider approximately N-1 contingencies. NTC = TTC x SecurityFactor

p.u.

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital -CAPEX- and fixed O&M -FOM-) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

BinaryInvestment

Binary pipeline investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

Initial and final node are the nodes where the transmission line starts and ends, respectively. They must be different.

If there is no data for TTCBck, i.e., TTCBck is left empty or is equal to 0, it is substituted by the TTC in the code. Internally, all the TTC and TTCBck values below 1e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Those pipelines with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

If lower and upper bounds of investment decisions are very close (with a difference < 1e-3) to 0 or 1 are converted into 0 and 1.