Input Data

All the input files must be located in a folder with the name of the case study.

Acronyms

Acronym

Description

AC

Alternating Current

aFRR

Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve

AWE

Alkaline Water Electrolyzer

BESS

Battery Energy Storage System

CCGT

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

DC

Direct Current

DCPF

DC Power Flow

DR

Demand Response

DSM

Demand-Side Management

EFOR

Equivalent Forced Outage Rate

ENTSO-E

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity

ESS

Energy Storage System

EV

Electric Vehicle

mFRR

Manual Frequency Restoration Reserve

NTC

Net Transfer Capacity

OCGT

Open Cycle Gas Turbine

PHS

Pumped-Hydro Storage

PV

Photovoltaics

RR

Replacement Reserve

TTC

Total Transfer Capacity

VRE

Variable Renewable Energy

Dictionaries. Sets

The dictionaries include all the possible elements of the corresponding sets included in the optimization problem. You can’t use non-English characters (e.g., ó, º)

File

Description

oT_Dict_Period.csv

Period (e.g., 2030, 2035). It must be a positive integer

oT_Dict_Scenario.csv

Scenario. Short-term uncertainties (scenarios) (e.g., s001 to s100)

oT_Dict_Stage.csv

Stage

oT_Dict_LoadLevel.csv

Load level (e.g., 01-01 00:00:00+01:00 to 12-30 23:00:00+01:00). Load levels with duration 0 are ignored

oT_Dict_Generation.csv

Generation units (thermal -nuclear, CCGT, OCGT, coal-, ESS -hydro, pumped-hydro storage PHS, battery BESS, electric vehicle EV, demand response DR, alkaline water electrolyzer AWE, solar thermal- and VRE -wind onshore and offshore, solar PV-)

oT_Dict_Technology.csv

Generation technologies. The technology order is used in the temporal result plot.

oT_Dict_Storage.csv

ESS storage type (daily < 12 h, weekly < 40 h, monthly > 60 h)

oT_Dict_Node.csv

Nodes. A node belongs to a zone.

oT_Dict_Zone.csv

Zones. A zone belongs to an area.

oT_Dict_Area.csv

Areas. An area belongs to a region. Long-term adequacy, inertia and operating reserves are associated to areas.

oT_Dict_Region.csv

Regions

oT_Dict_Circuit.csv

Circuits

oT_Dict_Line.csv

Line type (AC, DC)

Geographical location of nodes, zones, areas, regions.

File

Dictionary

Description

oT_Dict_NodeToZone.csv

NodeToZone

Location of nodes at zones

oT_Dict_ZoneToArea.csv

ZoneToArea

Location of zones at areas

oT_Dict_AreaToRegion.csv

AreaToRegion

Location of areas at regions

Input files

This is the list of the input data files and their brief description.

File

Description

oT_Data_Option.csv

Options of use of the openTEPES model

oT_Data_Parameter.csv

General system parameters

oT_Data_Period.csv

Weight of each period

oT_Data_Scenario.csv

Short-term uncertainties

oT_Data_Stage.csv

Weight of each stage

oT_Data_ReserveMargin.csv

Adequacy reserve margin

oT_Data_Duration.csv

Duration of the load levels

oT_Data_Demand.csv

Demand

oT_Data_Inertia.csv

System inertia by area

oT_Data_OperatingReserveUp.csv

Upward operating reserves (include aFRR, mFRR and RR for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E)

oT_Data_OperatingReserveDown.csv

Downward operating reserves (include aFRR, mFRR and RR for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E)

oT_Data_Generation.csv

Generation data

oT_Data_VariableMaxGeneration.csv

Variable maximum power generation by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinGeneration.csv

Variable minimum power generation by load level

oT_Data_VariableMaxConsumption.csv

Variable maximum power consumption by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinConsumption.csv

Variable minimum power consumption by load level

oT_Data_EnergyInflows.csv

Energy inflows to an ESS

oT_Data_EnergyOutflows.csv

Energy outflows from an ESS for Power-to-X (H2 production or EV mobility or irrigation)

oT_Data_VariableMaxStorage.csv

Maximum storage of the ESS by load level

oT_Data_VariableMinStorage.csv

Minimum storage of the ESS by load level

oT_Data_Network.csv

Network data

oT_Data_NodeLocation.csv

Node location in latitude and longitude

In any input file only the columns indicated in this document will be read. For example, you can add a column for comments or additional information as needed, but it will not read by the model.

Options

A description of the options included in the file oT_Data_Option.csv follows:

File

Description

IndBinGenInvest

Indicator of binary generation expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinGenRetirement

Indicator of binary generation retirement decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore retirements}

IndBinNetInvest

Indicator of binary network expansion decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary, 2 ignore investments}

IndBinGenCommit

Indicator of binary generation operation decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary}

IndBinGenRamps

Indicator of activating or not the up/down ramp constraints

{0 no ramps, 1 ramp constraints}

IndBinGenMinTime

Indicator of activating or not the min up/down time constraints

{0 no min time constraints, 1 min time constraints}

IndBinSingleNode

Indicator of single node case study

{0 network, 1 single node}

IndBinLineCommit

Indicator of binary transmission switching decisions

{0 continuous, 1 binary}

IndBinNetLosses

Indicator of network losses

{0 lossless, 1 ohmic losses}

Parameters

A description of the system parameters included in the file oT_Data_Parameter.csv follows:

File

Description

ENSCost

Cost of energy not served. Cost of load curtailment. Value of Lost Load (VoLL)

€/MWh

PNSCost

Cost of power not served associated with the deficit in operating reserve by load level

€/MW

CO2Cost

Cost of CO2 emissions

€/t CO2

UpReserveActivation

Upward reserve activation (proportion of upward operating reserve deployed to produce energy)

p.u.

DwReserveActivation

Downward reserve activation (proportion of downward operating reserve deployed to produce energy)

p.u.

MinRatioDwUp

Minimum ratio downward to upward operating reserves

p.u.

MaxRatioDwUp

Maximum ratio downward to upward operating reserves

p.u.

Sbase

Base power used in the DCPF

MW

ReferenceNode

Reference node used in the DCPF

TimeStep

Duration of the time step for the load levels (hourly, bi-hourly, trihourly, etc.)

h

EconomicBaseYear

Base year for economic parameters affected by the discount rate

year

AnnualDiscountRate

Annual discount rate

p.u.

A time step greater than one hour it is a convenient way to reduce the load levels of the time scope. The moving average of the demand, upward/downward operating reserves, variable generation/consumption/storage and ESS energy inflows/outflows over the time step load levels is assigned to active load levels (e.g., the mean value of the three hours is associated to the third hour in a trihourly time step).

Period

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Period.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Scenario

Weight

Weight of each period

This weight allows the definition of equivalent (representative) years (e.g., year 2030 with a weight of 5 would represent years 2030-2034). Periods are not mathematically connected between them, i.e., no constraints link the operation at different periods.

Scenario

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Scenario.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Probability

Probability of each scenario in each period

p.u.

For example, the scenarios can be used for obtaining the GEP+SEP+TEP considering hydro inflows uncertainty represented by means of three scenarios (wet, dry and average), or two VRE scenarios (windy/cloudy and calm/sunny). The sum of the probabilities of all the scenarios of a period must be 1.

Stage

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Stage.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Scenario

Weight

Weight of each stage

This weight allows the definition of equivalent (representative) periods (e.g., one representative week with a weight of 52). Stages are not mathematically connected between them, i.e., no constraints link the operation at different stages.

Adequacy reserve margin

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_ReserveMargin.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Scenario

ReserveMargin

Adequacy reserve margin for each area

Duration

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Duration.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Duration

Duration of the load level. Load levels with duration 0 are ignored

h

Period

Scenario

Load level

Stage

Assignment of the load level to a stage

It is a simple way to use isolated snapshots or representative days or just the first three months instead of all the hours of a year to simplify the optimization problem.

The stage duration as sum of the duration of all the load levels must be larger or equal than the shortest duration of any storage type or any outflows type (both given in the generation data) and multiple of it. Consecutive stages are not tied between them. Consequently, the objective function must be a bit lower.

The initial storage of the ESSs is also fixed at the beginning and end of each stage. For example, the initial storage level is set for the hour 8736 in case of a single stage or for the hours 4368 and 4369 (end of the first stage and beginning of the second stage) in case of two stages, each with 4368 hours.

Demand

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_Demand.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Node

Power demand of the node for each load level

MW

The demand can be negative for the (transmission) nodes where there is (renewable) generation in lower voltage levels. This negative demand is equivalent to generate that power amount in this node. Internally, all the values below if positive demand (or above if negative demand) 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

System inertia

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_Inertia.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Area

System inertia of the area for each load level

s

Given that the system inertia depends on the area, it can be sensible to assign an area as a country, for example.

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Upward and downward operating reserves

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_OperatingReserveUp.csv and oT_Data_OperatingReserveDown.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Area

Upward/downward operating reserves of the area for each load level

MW

Given that the operating reserves depend on the area, it can be sensible to assign an area as a country, for example. These operating reserves must include Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserves (aFRR), Manual Frequency Restoration Reserves (mFRR) and Replacement Reserves (RR) for electricity balancing from ENTSO-E.

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Generation

A description of the data included for each generating unit in the file oT_Data_Generation.csv follows:

Header

Description

Node

Name of the node where generator is located. If left empty, the generator is ignored

Technology

Technology of the generator (nuclear, coal, CCGT, OCGT, ESS, solar, wind, biomass, etc.)

MutuallyExclusive

Mutually exclusive generator. Only exclusion in one direction is needed

BinaryCommitment

Binary unit commitment decision

Yes/No

NoOperatingReserve

No contribution to operating reserve. Yes if the unit doesn’t contribute to the operating reserve

Yes/No

StorageType

Storage type based on storage capacity (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, etc.)

Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Monthly

OutflowsType

Outflows type based on the demand extracted from the storage (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, etc.)

Hourly/Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Yearly

MustRun

Must-run unit

Yes/No

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

MaximumPower

Maximum power output (generation/discharge for ESS units)

MW

MinimumPower

Minimum power output (i.e., minimum stable load in the case of a thermal power plant)

MW

MaximumReactivePower

Maximum reactive power output (discharge for ESS units) (not used in this version)

MW

MinimumReactivePower

Minimum reactive power output (not used in this version)

MW

MaximumCharge

Maximum consumption/charge when the ESS unit is storing energy

MW

MinimumCharge

Minimum consumption/charge when the ESS unit is storing energy

MW

InitialStorage

Initial energy stored at the first instant of the time scope

GWh

MaximumStorage

Maximum energy that can be stored by the ESS unit

GWh

MinimumStorage

Minimum energy that can be stored by the ESS unit

GWh

Efficiency

Round-trip efficiency of the pump/turbine cycle of a pumped-hydro storage power plant or charge/discharge of a battery

p.u.

Availability

Unit availability for system adequacy reserve margin

p.u.

Inertia

Unit inertia constant

s

EFOR

Equivalent Forced Outage Rate

p.u.

RampUp

Ramp up rate for generating units or maximum discharge rate for ESS discharge

MW/h

RampDown

Ramp down rate for generating units or maximum charge rate for ESS charge

MW/h

UpTime

Minimum uptime

h

DownTime

Minimum downtime

h

ShiftTime

Maximum shift time

h

FuelCost

Fuel cost

€/Mcal

LinearTerm

Linear term (slope) of the heat rate straight line

Mcal/MWh

ConstantTerm

Constant term (intercept) of the heat rate straight line

Mcal/h

OMVariableCost

Variable O&M cost

€/MWh

OperReserveCost

Operating reserve cost

€/MW

StartUpCost

Startup cost

M€

ShutDownCost

Shutdown cost

M€

CO2EmissionRate

CO2 emission rate

t CO2/MWh

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital and fixed O&M) cost

M€

FixedRetirementCost

Overnight retirement (capital and fixed O&M) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

BinaryInvestment

Binary unit investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

BinaryRetirement

Binary unit retirement decision

Yes/No

RetirementLo

Lower bound of retirement decision

p.u.

RetirementUp

Upper bound of retirement decision

p.u.

Daily storage type means that the ESS inventory is assessed every time step, weekly storage type is assessed at the end of every day, and monthly storage type is assessed at the end of every week. Outflows type represents the interval when the energy extracted from the storage needs to be satisfied. The storage cycle is the minimum between the inventory assessment period and the outflows period. It can be one time step, one day, and one week. The ESS inventory level at the end of a larger storage cycle is fixed to its initial value, i.e., the inventory of a daily storage type (evaluated on a time step basis) is fixed at the end of the week, the inventory of weekly/monthly storage is fixed at the end of the year.

The initial storage of the ESSs is also fixed at the beginning and end of each stage. For example, the initial storage level is set for the hour 8736 in case of a single stage or for the hours 4368 and 4369 (end of the first stage and beginning of the second stage) in case of two stages, each with 4368 hours.

A generator with operation cost (sum of the fuel and emission cost, excluding O&M cost) > 0 is considered a non-renewable unit. If the unit has no operation cost and its maximum storage = 0, it is considered a renewable unit. If its maximum storage is > 0, with or without operation cost, is considered an ESS.

Must-run non-renewable units are always committed, i.e., their commitment decision is equal to 1. All must-run units are forced to produce at least their minimum output.

If unit availability is left 0 or empty is changed to 1. For declaring a unit non contributing to system adequacy reserve margin, put the availability equal to a very small number.

EFOR is used to reduce the maximum and minimum power of the unit. For hydro units it can be used to reduce their maximum power by the water head effect. It does not reduce the maximum charge.

Those generators or ESS with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

Variable maximum and minimum generation

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxGeneration.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinGeneration.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) power generation of the unit by load level

MW

To force a generator to produce 0 a lower value (e.g., 0.1 MW) strictly > 0, but not 0 (in which case the value will be ignored), must be introduced. This is needed to limit the solar production at night, for example. It can be used also for upper-bounding and/or lower-bounding the output of any generator (e.g., run-of-the-river hydro, wind).

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Variable maximum and minimum consumption

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxConsumption.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinConsumption.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) power consumption of the unit by load level

MW

To force a ESS to consume 0 a lower value (e.g., 0.1 MW) strictly > 0, but not 0 (in which case the value will be ignored), must be introduced. It can be used also for upper-bounding and/or lower-bounding the consumption of any ESS (e.g., pumped-hydro storage, battery).

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Energy inflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_EnergyInflows.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Energy inflows by load level

MW

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

If you have daily inflows data just input the daily amount at the first hour of every day if the ESS have daily or weekly storage capacity.

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Energy outflows

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_EnergyOutflows.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Energy outflows by load level

MW

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

These energy outflows can be used to represent the energy extracted from an ESS to produce H2 from electrolyzers, to move EV or as hydro outflows for irrigation.

If you have daily/weekly/monthly/yearly outflows data just input the daily/weekly/monthly/yearly amount at the first hour of every day/week/month/year.

Internally, all the values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Variable maximum and minimum storage

A description of the data included in the files oT_Data_VariableMaxStorage.csv and oT_Data_VariableMinStorage.csv follows:

Identifier

Identifier

Identifier

Header

Description

Period

Scenario

Load level

Generator

Maximum (minimum) storage of the ESS by load level

GWh

All the generators must be defined as columns of these files.

For example, these data can be used for defining the operating guide (rule) curves for the reservoirs.

Transmission network

A description of the circuit (initial node, final node, circuit) data included in the file oT_Data_Network.csv follows:

Header

Description

LineType

Line type {AC, DC, Transformer, Converter}

Switching

The transmission line is able to switch on/off

Yes/No

InitialPeriod

Initial period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

FinalPeriod

Final period (year) when the unit is installed or can be installed, if candidate

Year

Voltage

Line voltage (e.g., 400, 220 kV, 220/400 kV if transformer). Used only for plotting purposes

kV

Length

Line length (only used for reporting purposes). If not defined, computed as 1.1 times the geographical distance

km

LossFactor

Transmission losses equal to the line flow times this factor

p.u.

Resistance

Resistance (not used in this version)

p.u.

Reactance

Reactance. Lines must have a reactance different from 0 to be considered

p.u.

Susceptance

Susceptance (not used in this version)

p.u.

AngMax

Maximum angle difference (not used in this version)

º

AngMin

Minimum angle difference (not used in this version)

º

Tap

Tap changer (not used in this version)

p.u.

Converter

Converter station (not used in this version)

Yes/No

TTC

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in forward direction. Static line rating

MW

TTCBck

Total transfer capacity (maximum permissible thermal load) in backward direction. Static line rating

MW

SecurityFactor

Security factor to consider approximately N-1 contingencies. NTC = TTC x SecurityFactor

p.u.

FixedInvestmentCost

Overnight investment (capital and fixed O&M) cost

M€

FixedChargeRate

Fixed-charge rate to annualize the overnight investment cost

p.u.

BinaryInvestment

Binary line/circuit investment decision

Yes/No

InvestmentLo

Lower bound of investment decision

p.u.

InvestmentUp

Upper bound of investment decision

p.u.

SwOnTime

Minimum switch-on time

h

SwOffTime

Minimum switch-off time

h

Depending on the voltage lines are plotted with different colors (orange < 200 kV, 200 < green < 350 kV, 350 < red < 500 kV, 500 < orange < 700 kV, blue > 700 kV).

If there is no data for TTCBck, i.e., TTCBck is left empty or is equal to 0, it is substituted by the TTC in the code. Internally, all the TTC and TTCBck values below 2.5e-5 times the maximum system demand of each area will be converted into 0 by the model.

Reactance can take a negative value as a result of the approximation of three-winding transformers. No Kirchhoff’s second law disjunctive constraint is formulated for a circuit with negative reactance.

Those lines with fixed cost > 0 are considered candidate and can be installed or not.

Node location

A description of the data included in the file oT_Data_NodeLocation.csv follows:

Identifier

Header

Description

Node

Latitude

Node latitude

º

Node

Longitude

Node longitude

º